# Phil 240

## Introduction to Logic

**Lecture:** CHEM 100, Monday/Wednesday 5:45 pm-6:35 pm

**Sections: **YMCA 114

501: Thursday 2:20-3:10 pm

502: Friday 8:00-8:50 am

503: Friday 9:10-10:00 am

504: Friday 10:20-11:10 am

505: Friday 11:30 am-12:20 pm

506: Friday 12:40-1:30 pm

507: Friday 1:50-2:40 pm

508: Friday 3:00-3:50 pm

509: Friday 4:10-5:00 pm

**Professor:** Kenny Easwaran, easwaran AT tamu DOT edu

**Office:** YMCA Building 314, (979) 847-6128

**Office Hours:** Monday/Wednesday 1-3, or by appointment.

## TAs:

Jared Oliphint - joliphint AT tamu DOT edu - sections 501, 502, 503

Sean Conte - srconte AT tamu DOT edu - sections 504, 505, 506

Dong An - dong_an AT tamu DOT edu - sections 507, 508, 509

**Supplemental Instruction:**

In addition to lectures, lab sections, and office hours from me and the TAs, there will be supplemental instruction sessions led by Carolyn Smith (carolyn15 AT tamu DOT edu). These will be starting Tuesday, September 5 at:

Sunday 4:00-5:00 pm HECC 202

Tuesday 7:00-8:00 pm Rudder 1011

Wednesday 8:00-9:00 pm HECC 110

There is also a Facebook group for discussion here:

**Text:*** Language, Proof, and Logic* by John Barwise and John Etchemendy

You can buy an electronic copy, which includes all software, online for $55 here.

You can also buy a hard copy on the same site, or at the campus bookstore.

Be careful if buying a used copy - it might not be possible to get a license for the software that will allow you to submit assignments!

**Assignments and Grading Policies:**

There are four types of assignments in this class. Weekly exercises to do during sections (25% of grade), weekly homework exercises to do at home, due by the beginning of lecture on Mondays (25% of grade), two midterm exams (25% of grade together), and a final exam (25% of grade). (Each week's assignment counts equally towards the overall homework or section grade - the number of points listed on each exercise is just a rubric saying how much each exercise counts compared to the others for that week.)

Most weekly exercises (both in-section and homework) will be turned in to your TA using the software that comes with the book. You can download the software from the site or using a CD that comes with the hard copy. If you don't have access to a computer that can install the software, it is installed on the computers in YMCA 114, as well as on all Open Access Lab computers on campus.

You will need a "Grade Grinder key" that you will get when you purchase the book, and this key cannot be shared. Once you associate an e-mail address with this key, you can only change the e-mail address once, so be sure to use the address that you plan to use for all your school work!

**Course Description:**

This course introduces students to the central concepts of deductive and inductive logic. This gives students training and practice in abstract reasoning of a type applicable to every subject matter. The specific method involves the construction and analysis of very precise artificial languages to supplement the imprecise natural languages we speak.

We begin with the general conceptual issues of deductive logic, as the study of what conclusion *must* be true if some premises are true. We develop this in detail starting first with the role of Boolean logic (and, or, not), and continuing with conditionals and quantifiers (if/then, every, some). In the final few weeks we introduce the concepts of probability and inductive logic - what it takes for some premises to give us a *good reason to believe* a conclusion, even if they don't guarantee it.

**Working in Groups:**

I strongly encourage you to discuss your work with other students. You can learn a lot by trying to explain something to someone else, and finding out that there's a step you don't quite understand yourself, and then figuring it out together. However, when you finish working through an assignment, you must write it up and submit it yourself, so that we can see how you individually are doing with the material. For the automatically graded assignments sent through the Submit program, the computers will recognize if you've just copied someone's file - you must create your own file even if you are submitting the same answer. For assignments involving writing, which will be given directly to your TA (they will let you know whether they prefer e-mail or hard copy), you should indicate at the top who you worked with.

An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do. http://aggiehonor.tamu.edu

**Disability Statement:**

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, currently located in the Disability Services building at the Student Services at White Creek complex on west campus or call 979-845-1637. For additional information, visit http://disability.tamu.edu.

**Additional sources:**

You are not required to look at any of this material, but you might find it helpful or interesting.

Video lectures to accompany the book

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - if there is any philosophical topic or question you get interested in, there is likely an article on this site discussing it.

## Schedule

### Basic logical concepts

**Aug. 28, 30**

*First day canceled for hurricane safety - watch for updates to assignments*

Reading: Chapter 1, sections 1-4

Assignment:

Homework 1: Exercises 1.8 (6 pts) and 1.10 (8 pts), to your TA (by e-mail or hard copy) by class time on Monday, Sept. 4. If you don't have the book yet, the relevant pages are here.

**Sept. 4, 6**

Reading:

*Language, Proof, and Logic*: Chapter 2, sections 1-5

Brian Skyrms, *Choice and Chance:* Chapter 2, sections 1-3 (pp. 12-17)

Assignment:

Homework 2: *Language, Proof, and Logic*: Exercises 2.2 (14 pts) and 2.7 (12 pts); *Choice and Chance*: p. 17, ranking the five arguments (10 pts)

Get these to your TA (by e-mail or hard copy) by class time on Monday, Sept. 11.

### Boolean logic

**Sep. 11, 13**

Reading: Chapter 3, sections 1-7

Assignment:

Homework 3: 3.13 (12 pts), 3.21 (12 pts - use 3.22 to help check)

You will need to use the Submit program - contact us if it isn't working. Remember that you can submit answers to "Just Me" for each exercise one by one, and confirm that you got it right. Submit to "Instructor Too" only once you are done with all exercises, and include them all in one submission.

Due by class time on Monday, Sept. 18.

**Sept. 18, 20**

Reading: Chapter 4, sections 1-4

Assignment:

Homework 4: 4.8 (10 pts) and 4.9 (20 pts). Due by class time on Monday, Sept. 25.

Note for exercises using the Boole program. In past semesters, this program was causing errors for some students when they tried to Submit their files - if you think you've done it right, and the program is still giving you errors, then don't worry about submitting the truth tables, and just make a note on the written part to your TA about the problem. Having made the truth tables will still be very helpful for figuring out all the other parts of this assignment.

### Introduction to Probability

**Sept. 25, 27**

Reading: Brian Skyrms, *Choice and Chance* Chapter 2

Supplemental reading:

an explanation of Bayes' Theorem, which is a technique we will use later to calculate probabilities

more on Bayes' Theorem - the first section or two are most helpful, and perhaps the linked appendix with examples worked out

**Oct. 2 - review in class**

**MIDTERM 1: OCTOBER 4**

### Proofs

**Oct. 9, 11**

Reading: Chapter 5, sections 1-4

Assignment:

Homework 5: 5.3 (5 pts), 5.5 (5 pts), 5.10 (10 pts), 5.16 (10 pts)

**Oct. 16, 18**

Reading: Chapter 6, sections 1-6

Assignment:

Homework 6: 6.4, 6.9, 6.19 (5 pts each)

Probability question (10 points): The probability of A given B is .5. The probability of A given ~B is .25. The probability of B is .6. What are the probabilities of the four possibilities? What is the probability of B given A?

### Conditionals

**Oct. 23, 25**

Reading: Chapter 7, section 1-3

Assignment:

Homework 7: 7.12, 7.13 (20 pts), 7.14 (10 pts)

**Oct. 30, Nov. 1**

Reading: Chapter 8, sections 1, 2, 4

Assignment:

Homework 8: 8.27 (10 pts), 8.48 (10 pts)

Proof 8.30 (right-click or ctrl-click and "save link as" to download the file)

**Nov. 6 - review**

**MIDTERM 2: NOVEMBER 8**

Note: There **will** be sections on Thursday and Friday, Nov. 9 and 10

### Quantifier Logic

**Nov. 13, 15**

Reading: Chapter 9, sections 1-6

Assignment:

Homework 9: 9.9 (8 pts) and 9.18 (10 pts)

**Nov. 20**

Reading: Chapter 10, section 1-4

Assignment:

Homework 10: 10.9 (20 pts)

*Note: This is Thanksgiving Week, so both Wednesday lecture, and Thursday and Friday sections will be canceled this week.*

**Nov. 27, 29**

Reading: Chapter 11, sections 1-5

Assignment:

Homework 11: 11.2 (10 pts), 11.4 (8 pts), 11.16 (20 pts)

**Dec. 6 - review (no lecture Dec 4 - redefined as Friday, so go to lab section for review instead)**

**Final exam: Friday, December 8, 7:30 am-9:30 am**